You can set just about every default value for a field in a table using the Field Properties pane.
Figure 30. Field Properties/Table Design View
Set the maximum size for data stored in a field set to the Text (0-255), Number, or AutoNumber (Long Integer or Replication ID) data type.
Customize the way numbers, dates, times, and text are displayed and printed. While it would be too lengthy to review all available formats, too interesting ones are: < forces all characters to be lowercase and > forces all characters to be uppercase.
Make data entry easier and control the values users can enter. For example, you can use an Input Mask to automatically enter parenthesis and hyphens in phone numbers.
Provide helpful information to the user through captions on objects in various views. If you don’t specify a caption, the field’s Field Name property is displayed in table, form and report view.
Automatically entered in a field when a new record is created. This is useful is most new records will have the same entry such as setting the State to VA. The Data Entry person can always override the default value.